Latest Issue: No. 1, Vol. 1, 2021

☐  Activated carbon material obtained on the basis of secondary cellulose-containing material

Z. Samkharadze*, T. Marsagishvili, M. Gachechiladze, J. Metreveli

R. Agladze Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry,
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: Ecology, Waste management, Carbonaceous material, New technology, New materials.

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 7

Abstract. Waste management is one of the most important problems in the world, in the solution of which an increasing role is assigned to the development of technologies for obtaining new materials from waste. A one-stage thermal conversion technology for the production of carbon material with a high specific surface area from various cellulose-based raw materials has been developed. The advantage of this method, in addition to one-stage and the possibility of implementing different modes, is that the process uses various gases generated during this process as an energy source. Different cellulose-containing raw materials can be used in this oven. An activated carbonaceous material was obtained from cheap, constantly renewable secondary raw materials (hazelnut shells, nectarine kernel, and sawdust). The composition and physical parameters of the resulting product were studied. Carbonic material can be used as an adsorbent, as well as to obtain antifriction composite coatings.

Recieved: 02-04-2021 | Web published: 30-04-2021 | Views: 58


☐  Synthesis of Benzimidazolyl derivatives of Indolo[7,6-g]indole and Benzo[e]pyrrolo[3,2-g]indole

M. Trapaidze*, N. Nikoleishvili, Sh. Samsoniya

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: Benzimidazole, benzopyrolloindole, indoloindole, condensation, cyclization

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 8

Abstract. Condensation reactions of indole[7,6-g]indole mono- and dialdehydes of indole with orthophenylene diamine have been carried out without producing the intermediate products and their cyclization to obtain the corresponding benzimidazole products. Optimal reaction conditions have been studied using different catalysts and reaction temperature regimes. The condensation and simultaneous cycling reactions of dicarboxybenzopyrroloindole with orthophenylenediamine have been similarly studied. 3(benzimidazole-2-yl)- and 3,8-bis((benzimidazole-2-yl)-1H,6H-indole[7,6-g]indole, 2,9-bis- (benzimidazole-2-yl)-ben­zo[e]pyrrole[3,2-g]indole have been isolated and characterized. Synthesized new multi-nuclear heterocyclic systems are interesting by their quality to retain their structures the α- or β-reactive states of pyrrol nuclei - reaction centers, on the basis of which it is possible to carry out many interesting transformations to obtain the expected biologically active compounds. The structure for the synthesized new substances is confirmed by data from the so-called proton-magnetic resonance spectrums.

Recieved: 07-04-2021 | Web published: 30-04-2021 | Views: 35


☐  Syntheses and Researches of 1N,3N-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)naphthalene-1,3-diamine

T. Iashvili, N. Nikoleishvili, E. Katsadze*

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: Naphthalenediamine, Naphthalene-bis-thiourea, Thiazole, cyclization reactions, chlorination

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 9

Abstract. New hetero cyclic system 1N,3N-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)naphthalene-1,3-diamine has been synthesized in stagedprocess transformation of 1,3-di-Aminophenylnaphthalene. Oxo- and Halogen-containing Thiazo-Naphthyl-di-amine systems were synthesized and characterized as Intermediary products. Preparative Method of delivering 1,1'-(naphthalene-1,3-diyl)bis(thiourea) has been processed and optimal conditions for these reactions are determined.
There has also been conducted the condensation of 1,1'-(naphthalene-1,3-diyl)bis(thiourea)with Ethyl Bromine of Acetate with formation of relevant 2,2'-(naphthalene-1,3-diyl­bis(azanediyl)­)bis(thiazol-4(5H)-one). Here has also been determined the optimal conditions of the Cyclization reactions. Reactions of Chlorinating 2,2'-(naphthalene-1,3-diylbis(azanediyl))bis(thiazol-4(5H)-one) with Phosphorus Oxychloride were carried out. It has been established that productivity of chlorinating reaction is the highest for initial Oxy compounds Phosphorus Oxychloride and Pyridine in case when taken in equimolar correlation.Condensation of 1N,3N-bis-(4-chlortiazol-2-yl)naphthalene-1,3-diamine with benzimidazole was performed the final compound.

Recieved: 06-04-2021 | Web published: 30-04-2021 | Views: 42


☐  Synthesis and Study some derivatives of 2-(1-adamantylmethyl)benzimidazole

A. Vanishvili*, D. Zurabishvili, Sh. Samosnyia

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: adamantane, benzimidazole, heterocycles, anticancer, antiparasitics

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 11

Abstract. The drugs resistance by various harmful microorganisms is actual problem in the scientific community. The problem still remains one of the global challenges according to the World Health Organization. Many antivirus drugs are no longer as effective as the used to be. Therefore, the synthesis of substances that should have a higher biological activity became essential. The purpose of the study is the synthesis of benzimidazole and adamantine rings containing organic substances, due to the structure of which should be characterized by high pharmacological action. Some derivatives of benzimidazole were synthesized and studied. The structures of the obtained products were examined by infrared and NMR spectroscopic methods.

Recieved: 13-04-2021 | Web published: 01-05-2021 | Views: 96


☐  The modern state of pollution of the river Kazretula by Madneuli enterprise

E.Bakradze1*, L. Shavliashvili2, G. Kuchava 1

1National Environment Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection of Georgia
2 Institute of Hydrometeorology, Georgian Technical University

Keywords: natural waters, river Kazretula, heavy metals, pollutions

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 12

Abstract. JSC Madneuli acting in the Bolnisi municipality is somehow a risk factor for the ecosystems of the region. A possible increase in heavy metals in environmental facilities can have a special threat to human health.

In 2019-2020 years, hydro -chemical and microbiological characteristics were studied in natural waters near the enterprise, Were the increased heavy metalს (Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu) content were observed; other parameters were within the norm (maximum permissible concentrations); The high concentrations were identified in drinking and artesian waters; Special load comes from the river Kazretula. In 2020 enterprise made some steps in the river Kezretula, in particular the river water was capsuled and is now cleaning and the fact that the contaminated river is currently relatively clean, which is also confirmed by microbiological analysis, Biodiversity started to recover. The obtained results are presented in the form of conclusions in the study.

Recieved: 22-04-2021 | Web published: 01-05-2021 | Views: 36


☐  Contaminated soil Phytoremediation using the plant Amaranthus in Bolnisi (Georgia)

G. Avkofashvili1*, A. Gongadze1, R. Gakhokidze2

1 Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, E. Andronikashvili Institute of Physics
2 Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: cadmium, cupper,  zinc,  Amaranthus Viridis

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 15

Abstract. The world modernization, global development, maximum utilization of minerals and ruthless treatment of the environment by humans have created many environmental problems around the world, and Georgia is no exception. 
One of the richest deposits in Georgia are in Bolnisi, where the RMG (formerly Madneuli) mine is functioning, located in Kazreti, on the right bank of the Mashavera River. An open-pit mining process causes soil and water contamination, which do harms to human health and ecosystem. Remediation projects are necessary to be implemented. One of the effective remediation techniques is Phytoremediation, this method, where hyperaccumulator plants are used for cleaning up contaminated soil or water, is safe and efficient.
During the research greenhouse experiments were carried out in Bolnisi to study Amaranthus Viridis phytoremediation potential. Cd, Cu and Zn were analyzed in the plant. According to the results Amaranthus Viridis phytoremediation ability was determined.

Recieved: 08-04-2021 | Web published: 01-05-2021 | Views: 56


☐  Newest Aspects of the Synthesis of 2-phenylindols (REVIEW)

A. Tsutskiridze*, M. Turiashvili, I. Chikvaidze

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: Indole, cyclization, catalysis, 2-arylindoles

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 16

Abstract. In this review, we are intending to show modern trends of 2-phenylindole synthesis. It is noteworthy to said that over the past years organometallic catalysis, stoichiometric organometallics and photocatalysis have achieved an important place in the arsenal of organic chemists involved in the construction and functionalization of 2-phenylindole derivatives. Methods are usually tolerant of a wide range of functionalities and they provide the significant advantage of avoiding protection groups. In general, it is apparent from a synthetic perspective that this application to 2-phenylindole chemistry has had a considerable impact on the synthesis of this important class of compounds. It is used almost routinely in today’s preparation of a vast number of 2-arylindoles, ranging from simple to complex molecular targets. Several areas of the metal-catalyzed 2-phenylindole chemistry have been the object of an increasing number of studies, which include the development of new synthetic strategies, the optimization of reaction conditions (ligands, bases, additives, solvents), and the application to the synthesis of bioactive derivatives. Despite the impressive number of contributions and results obtained, however, many challenges remain. A better understanding of various mechanisms in the process of synthesis and functionalization of 2-arylndoles is necessary, and there is space for improvement in both scope and mildness of the reaction conditions for some of the methods described. Achieving higher turnover numbers of the catalytic cycles to favor a major impact on the industry can also be expected to be an area of major interest.

Recieved: 08-04-2021 | Web published: 02-05-2021 | Views: 79


☐  Study of Alkylation of Nitrogen-containing Alicyclic Nucleophiles with α-Hydroxy(alkyl)ferrocenes

Kh. Barbakadze1,2*, B. Arziani1, D. Zurabishvili2, N. Lekishvili2

1Tbilisi State Medical University
2Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: ferrocene, alkylation, nucleophile, alicyclic fragment, biological activity.

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 18

Abstract. N-alkylation reaction of nitrogen-containing alicyclic nucleophiles with α-hydroxy(alkyl)ferrocenes in two-phase system: organic solvent - dichloroethane, chloroform / 70% aqueous solution of perchloric acid was studied. α-Ferrocenylalkylation proceeds via an intermediate formation of the stable α-ferro­cenyl­alkyl carbocation. The composition and structure of the corresponding N-(α-ferrocenyl­alkyl)­perchlorates and amines synthesized as a result of the research were determined by the IR, UV, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C), and mass spectroscopic analysis methods. New biologically active compounds simultaneously containing ferrocene and alicyclic fragment obtained as a result of targeted synthesis present interesting objects for further investigations in terms of both as theoretical, e. g., for study the mutual influence between chemical structure and biological activity, and in a practical point of view, including the direction of search of the new medicaments with the broad spectrum of pharmacological activity.

Recieved: 08-05-2021 | Web published: 08-05-2021 | Views: 53


☐  On the Logarithm of the Determinant of the ANB-Matrix as a Function of the Signless Laplacian: 1. Contributions of Functional Groups

G. Lekishvili1,*, M. Gverdtsiteli 2, I. Gutman 3

1Tbilisi State Medical University
2I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia
3University of Kragujevac, Serbia

Keywords: chemical graph, adjacency matrix, topological index, signless Laplacian, logarithm of a matrix

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 19

Abstract. Logarithm of the determinant of ANB matrices has been fruitfully used for QSAR/QSPR modeling. We have shown that the ANB matrix (Γ) can be expressed by using the signless laplassian matrix of the graph and has the following shape for modeling saturated hydrocarbons: Γ = 2In + Q.  Once the signless Laplacian is positive semi-definite, all eigenvalues of Γ are positive here, therefore the logarithm of its determinant equals to the trace of the matrix logarithm. Application of a helper matrix with a suitable spectral radius, its expansion into the Taylor-Maclaurin series, and taking into account that the kth trace of the matrix yields the kth spectral moment that allows for calculations of embedding frequencies of sub-graphs leads to the following:
 GG ≈ 0.3663n + 0.2366m - 0.0267|K1,2| + 0.0005|K1,3| - 0.000036|D1,1| - 0.0005|C3 | - 0.00012|K1,4| - 0.00004|C3,1| - 0.000072|C4| + 0.000008|D2,1| + 0.000096|K1,5| + 0.000008|C4,1| + 0.000008|Φ1| + 0.000008|C5| + 0.000016|C3,2| + 0.000032|Φ2|

It is noteworthy that, in principle, the GG index can be approximated at an arbitrary precision once the corresponding spectral moments are calculated.

Recieved: 21-04-2021 | Web published: 11-05-2021 | Views: 48


☐  Study of influence of oil phase and co-surfactant on the microenvironment of polyoxyethylene (4) lauryl ether reverse micelles via methyl orange as optical probe

N. Mzareulishvili, M. Kurtanidze, G. Bezarashvili, M. Rukhadze*

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Keywords: Brij-30 reverse micelles, Methyl orange, association degree, water pockets, co-surfactant

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 20

Abstract. The microenvironment of reverse micelles of polyoxyethylene (4) lauryl ether (Brij 30) was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy on the basis of methyl orange as molecular probe. The influence of different factors, viz. concentration of surfactant Brij-30, nature of oil phase (hexane and decane) and co-surfactant (n-butanol and n-heptanol) on the changes in electronic spectrum of methyl orange was investigated. An influence of the mentioned factors on the value of association degree of optical probe with reverse micelles were studied. Profile of dependence of methyl orange absorption maxima versus water content indicates the existence of three types of water (primary bound water, secondary bound water and free water) in the water pockets of reverse micelles.

Recieved: 10-05-2021 | Web published: 17-05-2021 | Views: 36


☐  Weathering of greenhouses plastic films in different exposure periods

Abdelhafidi Asma*, Chabira Salem Fouad, Benmiloud Nourelhouda, Yagoubi Wassima, Sebaa Mohammed

Mechanics laboratory(Ime).University of Ammar Telidji Laghouat.Algeria

Keywords: LDPE, Photooxidation, FTIR, Curve fitting, Crystallinity index.

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 22

Abstract. Analysis of the IR spectra of weathered films exposed at different periods of the year reveals that, the main regions of the IR spectrum affected by solar irradiation and temperature variation are the complex carbonyls and unsaturations composite absorption bands. Their respective kinetics vary in different manner according to the period at which the exposure is started. Curve fitting has been performed to refine the analysis of the IR spectra and to identify all the chemical species constituting the complex absorption bands. The analysis of the results let appears that whatever the exposure period of the year is, it does not affect the type of developing products, but it has strong effect on their kinetic rate of formation. The warm season is the more effective in terms of carbonyl formation and crystallinity index. This indicates that the Norrish type I (NI) process is very important in this season and it adds to the Norrish type II (NII) process. Both contribute to the carbonyl and vinyl groups formation via chain scission reactions; however the NII process is active during all the period of the year.

Recieved: 24-05-2021 | Web published: 24-05-2021 | Views: 48


☐  About the prospects of production of lithopone in Georgia based on local raw materials

R. Dundua

Institute of inorganic chemistry and electrochemisty,
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University.

Keywords: Georgian barite deposit, Georgian coal deposit, barium sulfide production, lithophone production.

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 23


According to geo-economic assessment of mineral resources, some resources of Georgia have strategic national significance. These resources include barite and coal. As it is known, these minerals are the main raw materials for obtaining mineral white pigment - lithopone. Growing rates of global market demand on lithopone and the availability of strategically important resources, provide an opportunity for Georgia to produce lithopone using local raw materials.

The presented research is aimed on identifying the feasibility of production of lithopone based on local raw materials - Chordi barite and Tkibuli-Shaori coal ore. In the laboratory, one of the main technological processes of lithopone production - the production of barium sulfide (BaS) from barite – was studied, taking into account the technological parameters known in practice.

There has been applied barite concentrate (BaSO4 - 96.8 %) and coal concentrate (carbon - 75 -80%). Restoration of barite by coal was performed by the ratio of 4:1 in sealed iron crucible at 900-950 °C inside a muffle furnace during 1-2 hours. Composition ob- tained as a result of recovery contains 58-63 % of barium sulfide, the degree of barite extraction reaches 80-83 %. The obtained

parameters are close to indicators of the regulation. In factory conditions, they are expected to increase upto standard indicators. Based on this, we believe that on the basis of existing barite and coal ores in Georgia, it is advisable to produce a white pigment – lithopone. This is expected to make a big difference to the country’s economic growth.

Recieved: 12-05-2021 | Web published: 12-06-2021 | Views: 60


☐  Synthesis of some new azo dyes on the base of 6-aminocoumarine

K. Dzuliashvili, N. Ochkhikidze

Agricultural University of Georgia

Keywords: azo dyes, diazotization, azo coupling, dyeing, wool

J. Geo. Chem. Soc., 2021, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, ID: 24

Abstract. Diazotization and azo coupling reactions are versatile tools of fine organic synthesis. Azo dyes have very interesting physical, spectral and chemical properties and are widely used in the different fields of the science and technology. Moreover, some of them have very significant biological activity and are used in the healthcare or medical diagnostics. Coumarin belongs to chromene type dyes, but it may be used as an azo partner in the azo coupling reaction for the synthesis of azochromenes dyes. In the current research we have obtained four new dyes bearing two p-conjugated azo and chromene chromophores. The target compounds were synthesized by diazotizaton of 6-aminocarine (1) and with following azo coupling to 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3a), naphthalen-2-ol (3b), 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid (3c) and (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (3d). Obtained azo dyes have been used for dyeing wool fiber and various technical and spectral properties have been studied.

Recieved: 17-06-2021 | Web published: 17-06-2021 | Views: 91